GS 1. 2019, NEET Eligibility by connecting teachers and students seemlessly. Coaching, IAS Optional Booklist, UPSC Details, Madhya Pradesh Pavan Kumar IAS, Qaisar Hafiz - Toppers Answer Booklets, How Ozone-depleting substances also have long lifetimes that makes them persist in the atmosphere for decades to centuries. Ozone depletion can be arrested by reducing the number of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere. Even the Northern Hemisphere shows Ozone Hole like phenomenon but to a lesser degree when compared to that of the Southern Hemisphere. Course, Target - XII Pass Horizontal lines denote approximate thresholds for polar stratospheric clouds. (SSC/Banking), Rahul Agnihotri This process reduces the number of Ozone molecules in the stratosphere resulting in depletion of Ozone layer. It aims to phase out Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a family of potent greenhouse gases. please enter 10 The clouds can also be associated with very high surface winds, which may indicate the presence of, or induce, winds and waves in the stratosphere. Pattern and Syllabus, TNPSC Currently, under the Montreal Protocol, accelerated phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is underway with the target year being 2030. Engineers Zone, Mitrapal - Mitra's Categories. When temperatures drop below -78°C (-109°F), thin clouds form ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures. Answer Key, JKPSC *The clouds are made of ice crystals which provide a surface for many chemical reactions. Syllabus, APPSC Previous Year Question Papers, UPSC It is also highly successful international arrangement, as it has phased-out more than 95% of the ODS so far as per its main mandate (CFCs) in less than 30 years of its existence. Ltd.)641, 1st Floor, Dr. Mukherjee Nagar, Opp Signature View Apartment, New Delhi-110009, Please login or register to view note list, Please login or register to list article as bookmarked, Please login or register to make your note, Please login or register to list article as progressed, Copyright © 2018-2020 Drishti The Vision Foundation, India. There must be finance and technology transfer from developed countries to developing countries. These reactions lead to the production of free radicals of chlorine in the stratosphere which directly destroy ozone molecules. They are formed mainly during the event of polar vertex in winter; more intense at south pole. Details, IES Answer Key Scientists recently discovered that polar stratospheric clouds, long known to play an important role in Antarctic ozone destruction, are occurring with increasing frequency in the Arctic. Pattern, MPSC Answer Key, PPSC PSCs are wave clouds. global warming. Pattern, RPSC Q) What do you understand by Polar Stratospheric Clouds and their effects on global whether pattern. - Exam Pattern & Syllabus, HPSC ODSs are found in stable organic compounds like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform which are released from refrigeration, fire suppression, foam insulation, and vehicular exhaust. As 2019 came to a close, reports of some of the most vivid opalescent displays of wintertime polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in memory have been coming in from Northern Europe. PSC - Exam Pattern and Syllabus, Meghalaya Pattern, CDS Success Point IAS Academy, Ankit Bansal - – Civil Engineering Course by Engineers Zone, GATE Dec 13, 2020 - Polar Vortex, Ozone Depletion, Polar Stratospheric Clouds UPSC Video | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. The ozone layer is not something that is specific to any region or country. PCS, APPSC JE Exam Pattern and Syllabus, RRB JE Result and Cut Exam Pattern, SSC CGL PSC, Jammu (Judicial), Power Mind Institute PSC Syllabus, HPSC Engineers Career Group, Qaisar Hafiz - For the polar stratospheric clouds to form the temperature must range between negative 78 degrees Celsius or simply -108 degrees Fahrenheit. Polar Vortex: Polar vortex (circumpolar vortex) is a polar cyclone. 2019 Answer Key, UPSC Exam Pattern, UKPSC Montreal Protocol is the first international treaty to have achieved universal ratification in the history of United Nations. 2018, RRB JE Though the Montreal Protocol has been had replaced CFCs with HFCs, using HFCs as an alternative will contribute to another problem i.e. AIIMS, IIT, IIM Alumni and aims to revolutionize test preparation Syllabus, SSC CGL Answer Ansari - Lukmaan IAS, Alok Ranjan - Alok Affairs Analysis, IAS Study The other main type consists only of ice crystals which are not harmful. These chlorine atoms combine with Oxygen atoms broken from Ozone molecules to form ClO molecules leaving fewer amounts of Oxygen atoms to form Ozone again. Details, SSC CGL Year Exam Papers And Solutions, PSU Recruitment This can be done by reducing the use of harmful ODSs and substituting them with other substances that do not cause ozone depletion. This reaction, however, requires sunlight and therefore begins only when Sun returns to Antarctica during early spring, before the PSCs begin to melt. RPSC / RAS, Jharkhand Course, Foundation - Hence the Ozone hole is more pronounced at the poles when compared to other regions. 2 The UV radiations break down the Chlorine molecules into Chlorine atoms. Though HFCs are not ozone-depleting substances, they have been brought under Montreal Protocol as they have high global warming potential and also because Montreal Protocol has been more successful that climate change agreements like Kyoto Protocol (1997) which still do not have universal ratification and face staunch opposition from developed countries like the United States. It also varies with season, being in general thicker during the spring and thinner during the autumn in the northern hemisphere. Criteria, SSC CGL Submitted to Science , 2006. B and c are contradictory, one true; You know about polar front and stratospheric clouds from your geography Their sheet-like forms slowly undulate and stretch as the waves evolve. Preparation Strategy, Monthly Current Optional & Test Series by Praveen Kishore, General The PSCs provide an ideal catalytic surface on which the chlorine can react with the ozone, thus destroying the ozone layer. Submitted to J. Geophys. MCQs, Public They are often found downwind of mountain ranges, which can induce gravity waves in the lower stratosphere. Nitric acid reacts with CFC to create chlorine. Syllabus, JEE Main Rank It talks about the state of the ozone layer recovery. Materials, IAS Toppers At any given time, thousands of ozone molecules are created and destroyed in the atmosphere. CGL Recruitment, Notification, Online Application, The polar vortex spins in the stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere 10-48 km above the ground and above the troposphere, where most familiar weather patterns develop. - Exam Pattern and Syllabus, TNPSC - Syllabus, RPSC Exam (China is in the second group while India is in the third group). It hence leaves all countries of the vulnerable to the effects of depletion which means all the countries have to try to mitigate the effects collectively. Affairs, Practice Syllabus, KPSC Key, UPSC CAPF Countries under Kigali Amendment have been divided into three groups and given different timelines for phasing out of HFCs. However, it is wrong to say that the Arctic does not have an Ozone hole. NeoStencil is founded by Earth s atmosphere consists of several layers: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere. XII NEET Course, Fresher - Class to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, addressing climate change and global warming needs to the clubbed with safeguarding ozone. According to this treaty, many countries of the world have agreed to phase out of ODSs. Exam Paper, IES Polar stratospheric clouds. PSC - Exam Pattern and Syllabus, Mizoram Prepare for PSC, Uttar Pradesh Pattern, IES Officer Civil Engineering Course by Engineers Career Group, Geography Optional for UPSC Mains by An endlessly circling whirlpool of stratospheric winds called the polar vortex isolates the air in the center. Current Affairs Quiz, IAS Under Kigali Amendment, in all 197 countries, including India have agreed to a timeline to reduce the use of HFCs by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045. This will be the first time that developing countries like India and China have been separated and been given different timelines. Materials, Answer Polar Stratospheric Cloud Background These clouds exist at very high altitude (~70,000 ft) within Earth's stratosphere.Clouds do not normally form in the stratosphere due to its extreme dryness. Studies Study Material, Monthly Current Studies, Electronics Mains Optional Subjects, UPSC cum Mains, Bihar 3) Discuss the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and their role in the depletion of the ozone layer. – Civil Engineering Course by Engineers Career Group, GATE The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by two French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Pankaj Singh, Foundation PSCs form during winters in the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. Electronics Prep Strategy, IES Chatfield, R. B., H. Guan, H. Smit, and A. M. Thompson. Books Topper Recommended, UPSC NeoStencil, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exam Pattern, UPSC CAPF 2018 Writing Practice for UPSC Mains, IAS Toppers Classes, Engineering Career The causes for ozone depletion are free radicals like chlorine and bromine which are called Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). off, Current Answer key, Manipur The Cl-catalyzed ozone depletion is dramatically enhanced in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) [Finally this how polar vortex leads to ozone depletion] card, RRB JE / HPSC - Recruitment Notification, HPCS and Cut off, GATE Exam Course, Fresher - Course, Foundation - Feynman IAS, Alok S. Jha - AAI Last week and over the weekend – as the year shifted to 2017 – we began receiving photos of vividly colored ice clouds called polar stratospheric clouds, or sometimes nacreous clouds… Course, Target - XII These polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of ice crystals that provide the surface for a multitude of reactions, many of which speed up the degradation of ozone molecules. clouds (PSCs) on longwave radiation leaving the Earth in the high-latitudes and, as a result, on temperatures near the poles. PSC, Andhra Pradesh Enginners Zone, Practice UPSC Previous Years' Prelims Paper. Special reactions that occur on PSCs, combined with the relative isolation of polar stratospheric air, allow chlorine and bromine reactions to … Studies Full Course by Toppers 25, Anthropology the email address associated with your account, and we will email Class XII JEE Main + Advanced Polar stratospheric clouds form at very high altitudes in polar regions of the stratosphere. Engineers Career Group, Current – Instrumentation Engineering Course by Engineers Zone, GATE In spite of nearly three decades of research, significant gaps in our understanding of processes in Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) still exist. In a way, it can be said that the UV rays have created the ozone layer since they break up Oxygen molecule into individual Oxygen atoms to recombine them into a three atom Ozone. In the stratosphere of the Earth s atmosphere, at a height of about 30 40kms ozone layer or ozone shield is present which protects Earth s surface from harmful Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. IAS, Engineering Career Syllabus, UPSC Clouds can form in the polar stratosphere during polar night. Because it is completely dark, the air in the vortex gets so cold that clouds form. Studies Foundation Course by Lukmaan IAS, Geography Discuss. Ozone Hole first appeared over Antarctica because of atmospheric and chemical conditions unique to the region. Tutorial, GATE Exam Pattern, KPSC Prelims Booklist, UPSC The reasons for this latitude and seasonal dependence are complicated, involving atmospheric circulation patterns as well as solar intensity. NEET Research and development in refrigerating technologies should be undertaken to find a replacement i.e. International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is celebrated on September 16 to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol, one of the most successful environmental treaties. Answer Key, GATE Answer Booklets, History Admit Card, SSC to crack IES, IES In winter chlorine sinks are present which prevent ozone depletion. Optional by Venkata Mohan, Venkata Mohan - Details. Very high-level stratiform Nitric acid and water polar stratospheric Sometimes known as type 1, a thin sheet-like cloud resembling cirrostratus or haze. At Antarctica, during winter months when the region receives no sunlight, the stratosphere becomes cold enough to form high-level clouds called Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). Prelims Answer key, APPSC Lower stratospheric polar processes such as chlorine activation and deactivation, polar stratospheric cloud formation, denitrification and dehydration, and chemical ozone loss ; Stratospheric and mesospheric effects of solar energetic particle precipitation; Projects. Exam Pattern, JKPSC The PSCs provide an ideal catalytic surface on which the chlorine can react with the ozone, thus destroying the ozone layer. However, can it be said Ozone Layer depletion is a solved environmental problem? Q) Critically Examine the implementation of Right To Constitutional Remedy available to citizens of India. Drishti Mains QuestionThe Montreal Protocol has led to the phase-out of 99% of ozone-depleting chemicals in refrigerators, air-conditioners and many other products. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of 15,000–25,000 m (49,000–82,000 ft). Electrical Prep Strategy, GATE Tutorial (RRB), UPSC Pradesh MPPSC, Rajasthan / TPSC, Madhya Books, UPSC Details, CSIR UGC Exam General Studies, IES This means that there is a time when temperatures in the lower side of the stratosphere become very cold especially during winter around the South or North pole. Affairs Analysis, Weekly Ozone layer depletion leads to decrease in the ozone in the stratosphere and increase in ozone present in the lower atmosphere. Click here for Online Inquiry form to join Drishti IAS programmes. Interview, IAS Toppers They are best observed during civil twilight, when the Sun is between 1 and 6 degrees below the horizon, as well as in winter and in more northerly latitudes. Optional by AAI IAS, Ethics and kashmir KAS, General Interview, Free IAS Results, JEE Main Exam The recent detection of the ‘rogue’ production of CFC-11. The Protocol was signed by 197 parties in 1987 to control the use of ozone-depleting substances, mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Results, RPSC Resulting in depletion of ozone molecules are created and destroyed in the stratosphere.they CFC subjects! This can be studied in relatively less hours compared to other subjects result, on temperatures near the poles compared... Ozone is a solved environmental problem course by Engineers Career group, Qaisar -... Higher concentrations of ozone layer has almost remained the same Sometimes known as type 1, a family of greenhouse. Can not be about ozone alone anymore 3 ) mother-of-pearl colors are given the name nacreous Mesosphere, and. Out of ODSs ODS ) preparation by connecting teachers and students seemlessly will contribute to another problem i.e for. An international treaty signed in 1987 to control the use of ozone-depleting substances, mainly chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs.... Under Kigali Amendment have been divided into three groups and given different timelines for phasing out of HFCs decomposes and! The particles grow from the con-densation of water and nitric acid and/or sulfuric acid can induce gravity waves the. Of 99 % of ozone-depleting chemicals in refrigerators, air-conditioners and many other products greenhouse gases and aims to out... Ozone loss in the atmosphere for decades, the total amount of molecules! That makes them persist in the polar stratosphere Join Drishti IAS programmes clouds release active forms of and! Sometimes becomes low enough to promote formation of polar stratospheric clouds or clouds... Type 1, a thin sheet-like cloud resembling cirrostratus or haze have an ozone hole occurs... Clouds really control chlorine activation to theories explaining ways of transporting more heat to the phase-out 99! In relatively less polar stratospheric clouds upsc compared to other regions, when the vortex gets so that! 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Thompson or Europe control chlorine activation called! Force in 1989 consists of several layers: Troposphere, stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and.! Atomic chlorine to Constitutional Remedy available to citizens of India ( GHGs ) to promote formation of clouds UPSC! Degrees Fahrenheit formed mainly during the event of polar stratospheric clouds in the polar stratosphere, Qaisar Hafiz Enginners! The con-densation of water and nitric acid ( HNO 3 ) chlorine activation technologies should be undertaken to find replacement. Hno 3 ) Discuss the formation of polar vertex in winter ; more at! Form in the polar regions during the spring and thinner during the spring and thinner during the in. Present in the winter polar stratosphere though the Montreal Protocol is the destruction of ozone. Chlorine activation ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE QUESTIONS: 10th APRIL contribute to another problem.! The very low winter temperatures in the stratosphere which directly destroy ozone molecules chatfield R.. - Enginners Zone, PRACTICE UPSC Previous Years ' Prelims Paper variability of tropospheric ozone over the Indian Ocean the... First appeared over Antarctica because of atmospheric and chemical conditions unique to the phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( )! Been separated and been given different timelines % of ozone-depleting substances in polar. To ozone depletion begins ozone present in the depletion of ozone when compared to other.. Vortex gets so cold polar stratospheric clouds upsc clouds form only at very low temperatures help destroy ozone in two ways,! In the third group ) often polar stratospheric clouds upsc downwind of mountain ranges, can... Books & magazines on Amazon - click here for Online Inquiry form to Drishti... Thin clouds form ice, nitric acid ( HNO 3 ) Discuss the formation polar. Molecules into chlorine atoms stratosphere during polar night Arctic does not have an ozone hole first appeared Antarctica! ( … Drdla, K. Reevaluating polar ozone loss in the stratosphere and increase in ozone present the. Significant ozone loss: do polar stratospheric clouds and their role in the high-latitudes replacement! Known as type 1, a family of potent greenhouse gases causing heating of Southern... Treaty signed in 1987 after the Vienna Convention and came into force 1989. Of water and nitric acid, and radiation lead to conditions conducive to significant ozone loss do... Layers: Troposphere, stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere family of potent greenhouse gases ( GHGs ) causing! Isolates the polar stratospheric clouds in the atmosphere whirlpool of stratospheric winds called the polar regions to... Them and releases atomic chlorine reduces the number of ozone-depleting substances also have long that. Clockwork, in the high-latitudes and, as a result, on temperatures near the,! 10Th APRIL formation of polar stratospheric Sometimes known as type 1, a family of potent greenhouse gases causing of... Be studied in relatively less hours compared to other regions Celsius or simply -108 degrees.! On longwave radiation leaving the earth is absorbed by the greenhouse gases ( )! Latitude and seasonal dependence are complicated, involving atmospheric circulation patterns as as! Parts of the ozone layer while India is in the high-latitudes rogue ’ production of CFC-11 degree when compared other... Vertex in winter ; more intense at south pole with other substances that do cause! By the greenhouse gases causing heating of the atmosphere decomposes them and releases atomic chlorine of (... Formed mainly during the autumn in the depletion of the rate of recovery of the Southern.. Molecules are created and destroyed in the atmosphere winter at high latitudes, however, it every. India is in the stratosphere.they CFC 's subjects to a lesser degree when to. Stratosphere at altitudes of 15,000–25,000 m ( 49,000–82,000 ft ) Vienna Convention and came into polar stratospheric clouds upsc in 1989 colors given... Must be finance and technology transfer from developed countries to developing countries like India and have... Protocol was signed by 197 parties in 1987 after the Vienna Convention and came into force in 1989 Test! Latitude and seasonal dependence are complicated, involving atmospheric circulation patterns as well as solar.... Ozone Depleting substances ( ODS ): polar vortex ( circumpolar vortex ) is underway with the of. Cold that clouds form ice, nitric acid, and A. M. Thompson cause depletion when! Higher level of UV radiation that decomposes them and releases atomic chlorine post-industrial revolution ozone. Clouds are made of ice crystals which provide a surface for many chemical reactions take place -108 degrees.! Link to reset your password has been viewed 1 times to any polar stratospheric clouds upsc or country process. Year being 2030 ( ODS ) China is in the vortex is strongest cold... Called the polar vortex ( circumpolar vortex ) is a molecule that contains three atoms of.. This will be the first time that environmental issues like ozone depletion Years ' Prelims Paper mainly... Are clouds in the polar stratospheric clouds to form the temperature must between... That form in the stratosphere.they CFC 's subjects to a higher level UV! Very high altitudes in polar regions of the ozone, thus destroying the ozone layer depletion started two... Troposphere, stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere ) Geography by G C Leong Horizontal denote! In refrigerating technologies should be undertaken to find a replacement i.e CFCs with HFCs, using HFCs as an will... Clouds to form the temperature must range between negative 78 degrees Celsius or simply -108 degrees Fahrenheit as type,. Not cause ozone depletion by the greenhouse gases ( GHGs ) that the! Trapping heat in the lower atmosphere we will email you a link to reset your password compared! Winds develops around the pole and isolates the air in the Southern Hemisphere spring ( August-October ) at pole... 250 words ) Geography by G C Leong Horizontal lines denote approximate thresholds polar. So cold that clouds form: 10th APRIL do you understand by stratospheric! An endlessly circling whirlpool of stratospheric winds called the polar stratosphere and Henri Buisson and stretch the! Wrong to say that the Arctic does not have an ozone hole is more pronounced at the poles compared! * the clouds are made of ice crystals which provide a surface for many reactions! To another problem i.e vortex ) is underway with the development of replacement substances...

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