In particular, the land reclamation project threatens to destroy the entire marine ecosystem in the Lantau area. By relieving the extreme conditions that affect the specific region, it gets easier for people to manipulate.Another objective is to combat adverse chemical reactions in the soil. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to reclaim land for agricultural use. The Land Resources Team specializes in Reclamation-wide lands, realty, and recreation. Regardless of the advancement of power-machine civilization and the subsequent decline of vegetable civilization or agriculture, the problem of food production and supply and the question of limitations in the … The average life of a natural gas well is 20 to 30 years. Low oxygen levels can create “dead zones,” which will suffocate marine life and cause others to flee the area. Land reclamation method depends on factors such as types of equipment available, type of coastal soil or sand, the topography of the ocean bed or even intended use of the reclaimed land. Between 1851 and the early 20th century, most land reclamation projects took place off the northern coast of Hong Kong Island where the British colonial offices were located, primarily between what are now the Kennedy Town and Causeway Bay neighbourhoods. With these concerns in mind, the government should consider some of the following mitigation measures. In 1997, the Hong Kong government passed the. Based on a public and private housing ratio of 7:3, the remaining land lots can provide quality residential areas to offer the middle class a wider choice in buying their first homes or replacing old ones. It is the predicted environmental damage from the project that has led to strong resistance from the public. The land reclamation will also establish a lot of job opportunities to the unemployed. Reclamation also took place on the southern end of the Kowloon peninsula. The reason for land reclamation and one of its advantages is the availability of more land for developmental purpose. The process of land reclamation by the oil and natural gas industry ensures that the land used is returned to a productive state. in the late 1980s and 1990s. irrigation and drainage: Land reclamation through irrigation and drainage …and reclaiming smaller bodies (polders). Additionally, these artificial islands could decelerate currents around Stonecutters Island to the north, where a treatment plant discharges waste water from the city’s central urban areas. on the islands, with renderings suggesting it will create a much larger volume of stagnant water that would become foul-smelling. Hand-picked stories once a fortnight. generally involves filling a selected area with large amounts of rock, earth and potentially cement. The bill contained a grandfather clause that allowed previously approved projects to be completed uninhibited by the ordinance. Land reclamation has been a common practice to produce valuable land in coastal areas. And, of the HK$550 million budget, HK$350 million will be used for engineering design. Our best stories direct to your inbox every fortnight. impact of land reclamation, with the precise study objectives being related to a logically structured inquiry, aimed at responding to the causes of environmental degradation, the deleterious effects on biodiversity in a marine habitat, and governmental policies on coastal preservation and conservation. Additionally, reclamation projects that are able to demonstrate a clear economic, commercial and social value may still be approved pending review. Given the prevailing role of private enterprise in early reclamation projects, the practice was conducted in. Another method would be that the proposed islands be designed in such a way that major marine passages would not be blocked and currents could be sped up. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and revegetation of strip-mine spoil areas, and similar … Much of the territory’s infrastructure projects were only achievable through land reclamation, including the Hong Kong Airport, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge and the expansion of the city’s MTR metro system in Victoria Harbour. In some jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands to an improved state. For one, the government must conduct a comprehensive impact assessment in order to determine the exact effects that the project will cause. . Additionally, these artificial islands could decelerate currents around Stonecutters Island to the north, where a treatment plant discharges waste water from the city’s central urban areas. In 2018, the Hong Kong government announced its latest massive land reclamation project – the “Lantau Tomorrow Vision” plan. The mineral extraction and reclamation process must ensure return of sustainable ecosystem to former degraded land. In the 1950s, Hong Kong’s population began growing at exponential rates, which was largely due to a massive influx of migrants from mainland China. 5.1 Land Reclamation in Ghana According to Amponsah-Tawia and Dartey-Baah (2011) investors into mining industries in Ghana are required to prepare an initial land reclamation plan before being granted the permit to operate. , leading to concerns over greater biodiversity and habitat loss for niche species. However, the impact of land reclamation on soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry, microbial quantity, and enzyme activities has been rarely studied. With these concerns in mind, the government should consider some of the following mitigation measures. Assessment of the environmental impact of land reclamation 2 The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the “OSPAR Convention”) was opened for signature at the Ministerial Meeting of the former Oslo and Paris Commissions in Paris on 22 September 1992. Dec. 10 2018. The Hong Kong government has adapted its land reclamation policies to different economic needs over the decades; moving forward, the city will also have to consider the needs and demands of its citizenry. The new towns of Kwun Tong (built in the 1950s), Tsuen Wan (built in the 1960s), Sha Tin and Tai Po (both built in the 1970s) were all largely reliant on reclamation, and were the first satellite town development projects aimed at accommodating growing population size and opening up new spaces for economic activity. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. Advantages: More land has been made available for development. Attaché Reports (GAIN) Locations . The first modern use of land reclamation as a policy measure in Hong Kong occurred in 1851. Concerns over reclamation projects in Victoria Harbour have also addressed the potential for reduced water flow and water body shrinkage, the harbour is now in fact shrunk to less than half of its original width. The EIA approach tested revealed a number of factors of importance … The project has revived environmental concerns over land reclamation and has elicited criticism towards a perceived misuse of the city’s fiscal resources. The concerned engineering works include river realignment and land reclamation from the bay, which could result in significant effects on local flood control and ecological protection. Early reclamation projects elicited public resistance from waterfront landowners and seaside trading firms with docking rights. Positive environmental benefits of a massive land reclamation project will see a ‘new Manhattan’ emerge on Nigeria’s coastline, according to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) produced by marine consultants, Royal Haskoning. In our interview with Dr. Cindy Lam, the HKUST marine biologist discussed the impact of land reclamation on biodiversity loss. The classification of Victoria Harbour as an asset of cultural as well as natural value in 1997 was seen as an important step, although it did little to reverse the modifications to the harbour that had already been carried out, nor did it halt pre-approved massive reclamation projects. Land reclamation, the empirical focus of this paper, epitomises the importance of recognising flux and transformation. Historic Hong Kong landmarks, including the Edinburgh Place Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier in Central were demolished between 2006 and 2008 to make way for reclamation. Reclaimed land supports many of the city’s landmarks, including Hong Kong Island’s iconic skyline. The government’s push of the “Lantau Tomorrow Vision” can also be attributed to its capability to address Hong Kong’s severe housing shortage. The mineral extraction and reclamation process must ensure return of sustainable ecosystem to former degraded land. In December of that year. Indeed, the detrimental effects of land reclamation on marine ecology may be assumed. And, of the HK$550 million budget, HK$350 million will be used for engineering design. As reclamation projects pivoted to focus on building Hong Kong’s capacity for a service economy, public reception of the practice turned increasingly negative. Water will likely stagnate as the water’s ability to flush out waste water (discharges from the Pearl River Delta and around HK) will weaken, which will lead to stagnant harbours across the artificial islands. Impact of Dredging and Reclamation on the Marine Environment PURPOSE The paper provides, at the request of Members, information on the commissioning and implementation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for dredging and reclamation works. Over the last 40 years, a long stretch of its coastline has been under a massive reclamation project to extend the land resource in the bustling metropolis of Manila. After reclamation, more buildings and infrastructures can built for the development of the economy, availability of living spaces, in a way reducing congestion, availability of industries, factories or company as the case may be in a way … Since 1973, the government has established nine new towns, complete with private and public housing, transportation infrastructure and commercial centres. Land reclamation uses the same process, which is sped up. As a non-profit volunteer-based organization the Environmental Reclamation Team (ERT), a division of the High Sierra Volunteer Trail Crew (HSVTC), was created to continue the HSVTC’s mission of … The impact of land reclamation on coastal environment and marine ecology is well recognized and widely studied. However, this new space and opportunity comes at a significant cost; with its heavy price tag, it will drain the city’s fiscal reserves, which have already been severely depleted by the COVID-19 pandemic. With a worsening dead zone and being surrounded by a discharge point, one could easily make the argument that this is neither eco-friendly or particularly attractive to a potential homeowner. Because it gives greater stability to gross harvests and to agriculture in general, land reclamation is very important to this branch of the national economy. Early reclamation projects were welcomed by the government, as they alleviated health and safety concerns in overcrowded neighbourhoods and homes. Dr. Lam highlighted the unprecedented low numbers of marine species iconic to Hong Kong, including the Chinese white dolphin and the horseshoe crab, species whose habitats have been disrupted by massive land reclamation projects. This included the Central and Wan Chai reclamation project which had been endorsed as early as. " [Importance of land reclamation in water resources management in Syria]. IMPACT OF LAND RECLAMATION ON | Chen, Kouping | ISBN: 9781374680524 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. A review of environmental statements and government guidance enabled the compilation of a comprehensive checklist of factors associated with reclamation. The classification of Victoria Harbour as an asset of cultural as well as natural value in 1997 was seen as an important step, although it did little to reverse the modifications to the harbour that had already been carried out, nor did it halt pre-approved massive reclamation projects. with Dr. Cindy Lam, the HKUST marine biologist discussed the impact of land reclamation on biodiversity loss. More turbulent waters can decrease sunlight and affect marine photosynthesis, and polluting substances can be consumed by smaller fish and increase the food web’s toxicity. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. A field survey conducted in 2019 identified the Lantau dead zones, where oxygen around the sea floor had dipped to 2 milligrams per litre – the threshold for marine life to survive – or lower. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture announced an effort to reclaim approximately 1.5 million acres (607,028 ha) of marginal or desert lands for agricultural use. Land reclamation generally involves filling a selected area with large amounts of rock, earth and potentially cement. The government’s push of the “Lantau Tomorrow Vision” can also be attributed to its capability to address Hong Kong’s severe housing shortage. Positive environmental benefits of a massive land reclamation project will see a ‘new Manhattan’ emerge on Nigeria’s coastline, according to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) produced by marine consultants, Royal Haskoning. This phenomenon of ocean grabbing dispossesses marine resources and spaces that fishers and coastal communities depend on. Another method would be that the proposed islands be designed in such a way that major marine passages would not be blocked and currents could be sped up. Based on a public and private housing ratio of 7:3, the remaining land lots can provide quality residential areas to offer the middle class a wider choice in buying their first homes or replacing old ones. Land reclamation appears to be a mainstay of policy planning for the city in the near future, although its strengths must be balanced with environmental security and minimisation of biodiversity loss. This sort of oxygen depletion – known as hypoxia – may cause irreparable damage to the marine ecosystem. It comprises dredging large amounts of sea sand transported over considerable distances to create a new land for industrial or infrastructure purposes. , 47% of Hong Kong’s 7.35 million population lived in new towns. The growth of Hong Kong’s urban areas and its city-dwelling population has largely been predicated on a set of unique policies that have allowed the city to develop despite environmental challenges such as a tropical climate and mountainous terrain. However, a change to arable land after reclamation would have the opposite effect of increasing the albedo. It comprises dredging large amounts of sea sand transported over considerable distances to create a new land for industrial or infrastructure purposes. Potential effects of dredging on the marine environment include effects of the dredging process and disposal process. Simply put, land reclamation involves creating new land where there was none before, which can be exploited for new purposes. While mainland China tends to regulate land reclamation practices more strictly than Hong Kong, reclamation projects connecting infrastructure between cities along the PRD are. For most citizens, service economy-oriented infrastructural land reclamation projects did not carry the same benefits as the development of new housing and commercial areas. Land reclamation is gradually posing negative impact on man due to unplanned urbanization. Environmental Impact Assessment on Land Reclamation from Sea Subtitle EIA on Land Reclamation from Sea Course Environmental Monitoring & Modelling Grade 3 Author Emelda Orakwue (Author) Year 2013 Pages 12 Catalog Number V215894 ISBN (eBook) 9783656447368 ISBN (Book) 9783656447672 File size 1519 KB Language English Tags environmental, impact, assessment, land, reclamation Price … In addition to the environmental impact, land reclamation harms efforts to conserve Hong Kong’s cultural heritage. In the 1950s, Hong Kong’s population began growing at exponential rates, which was largely due to a massive influx of. Reclaiming Damaged Land Also Restores The Quality Of Water. Arguably the most historically popular urban development strategy in Hong Kong has been land reclamation, the process of creating new land by filling in existing water bodies. Earlier this month, Chief Executive . , which mainly criticised the loss of natural and cultural heritage in exchange for minimal benefits for average citizens. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. Reclamation, the most commonly used English-language term for. Impact of River Realignment and Land Reclamation on Flood Control Ecological Habitat in Shenzhen River-estuary-bay System 213 IWRA, W ater International , V olume 26, Number 2, June 2001 HSWLT is proud to support the High Sierra Volunteer Trail Crew Environmental Reclamation Team in their efforts to reclaim and clean up trespass marijuana grown on public lands. The area that is pumped dry is then enclosed by dikes. In March, Earth.Org interviewed, of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology’s Department of Ocean Science, who discussed land reclamation’s contribution to biodiversity and habitat loss. Of the nine new towns, six have been built on reclaimed land. According to Dr. Lam, churned sediment and the deposition of organic and inorganic polluting materials will have a causal effect on marine food webs. Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Returning disturbed land to a usable state is called land reclamation. priority importance to the preservation of sustainable activities in the land reclamation and irrigation, and their development. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. According to the government’s planning concept, the Kau Yi Chau island will create more than 40 million square feet of commercial floor space, the size of Hong Kong’s Central district. The area is then covered and filled with more clay and soil until the targeted height is reached. , reclaimed land represented 6% of Hong Kong’s total area and 25% of its developed land. Land reclamation has enabled exponential population and economic growth in Hong Kong, and appears to be the developmental instrument of choice for the city’s leadership moving forward. No grass, no trees, no wildlife, just dirt. In the second part of the plan we can consider other forms of land reclamation in conjunction with the use of technologies to get rid of the waste that cannot be used in the reclamation … Low oxygen levels can create “dead zones,” which will suffocate marine life and cause others to flee the area. This, combined with the territory’s increasing importance in financial mediation between China and the global market accelerated Hong Kong’s transition to a burgeoning service and trade economy in the late 1980s and 1990s. Reclaimed property is often restored to something resembling a natural state, though it can also be repurposed. It also explains the mechanism in monitoring the actual environmental impacts and comparing such impacts with those predicted in the … The debris is then used to either extend the coastline or create artificial islands. Simply put, land reclamation involves creating new land where there was none before, which can be exploited for new purposes. 260 000 to 400 000 residential units from the “Lantau Tomorrow” from 2032. completed in stages to meet the housing needs of approximately 700 000 to 1.1 million people. Land is to be considered the most important aspect of production, especially agricultural production. Land reclamation is one of the main areas of interest for the dredging industry. So it would be highly desirable if sludge can be treated and used for land reclamation. Drainage channels and, in many places, subsurface drains are installed so that the root zone of crops can be drained. This included the Central and Wan Chai reclamation project which had been endorsed as early as 1989. The new towns of Kwun Tong (built in the 1950s), Tsuen Wan (built in the 1960s), Sha Tin and Tai Po (both built in the 1970s) were all largely reliant on reclamation, and were the first satellite town development projects aimed at accommodating growing population size and opening up new spaces for economic activity. This is where the importance of reclamation comes in. Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor . There are a few objectives that are really important in the process, as well as many alternatives. In addition to the environmental impact, land reclamation harms efforts to conserve Hong Kong’s cultural heritage. Reclamation Plant Sewage sludge Using Sludge for Land Reclamation • There is a shortage of land reclamation materials in Singapore. Ten waters (8 surface and 2 groundwater sources), 10 soil samples and air were collected and taken for analysis. The large-scale reclamation plan for the expansion of Central and Wan Chai that began in the 1990s elicited a negative public response, which mainly criticised the loss of natural and cultural heritage in exchange for minimal benefits for average citizens. (2015) ‘Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Land reclamation, as a measure of increasing cultivated land area, is being popularized in China in the past decades. As a response, the Hong Kong government forgoed the private enterprise-driven approach to land reclamation, and intervened directly to create new habitable land to accommodate the city’s rapidly growing population. In 1973, the government consolidated its vision for urban population growth by announcing a new development initiative, termed the. With a staggering HKD$624 billion price tag attached, the project aims to house 1.1 million people in an economic and residential hub through the creation of artificial islands covering 1 000 hectares beginning in 2026 or 2027. Hydraulic fill reclamation has become more common in recent times and land reclamation sites can be found all over the world. More turbulent waters can decrease sunlight and affect marine photosynthesis, and polluting substances can be consumed by smaller fish and increase the food web’s toxicity. Reclamation was an unsystematic urban expansion measure, which meant that the majority of projects were piecemeal private initiatives which rarely amounted to major infrastructural development policy throughout this period. the Lantau land reclamation project is not only an effective solution to addressing land shortage in Hong Kong, it also provides a strong foundation for capitalising on growth opportunities in the Greater Bay Area. led by Professor Jianping Gan at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) found two seasonal water zones with low oxygen levels near the reclamation site (south and southeast of Lantau Island). Ultimately, a comprehensive study examining ocean hydrodynamics, nutrient sources, waste water cycle in the environment and affected ecosystem will be necessary if we are to proceed with any form of land reclamation project. Even if the government were to lean towards the private sector for help (which it has been attempting to tap into), this would most likely be unable to account for all future costs that will be accrued from the enormity of the project. Of the nine new towns, six have been built on reclaimed land. The Convention entered into force on 25 March 1998. The government managed to assuage concerns by introducing a payment scheme that invited private sector enterprises to claim ownership of reclaimed land in exchange for paying for the reclamation of the land, thus driving development policy through private capital. Africa and Middle East, Egypt. On the topic of Hong Kong’s developmental policy taking precedence over conservation efforts, Dr. Lam stated: “Hong Kong likes to adopt the ‘development first, conservation later’ approach. Where the land surface is above low-tide level, the water may be … Image 1: South China Morning Post: Visual history of land reclamation in Hong Kong before 2018. In 1993, Hong Kong recorded an urbanisation rate of 100%, meaning that all of the territory’s residents were considered to be residing in urban environments. Another could involve a costly scheme to remove nutrients from sewage across the city before this waste is discharged. Should the harbour’s water flow be slowed substantially, its self-cleansing ability may be severely impacted, a situation only aggravated by reclamation projects increasing water turbidity. For one, the government must conduct a comprehensive impact assessment in order to determine the exact effects that the project will cause. Natural factors such as floods and storms make it necessary to perform reclamation acts to mitigate them. The territory’s British rulers opted to combine the rubble with soil from nearby hill slopes and deposit it in the harbour to create a new roadway along the coastline. Land reclamation has enabled exponential population and economic growth in Hong Kong, and appears to be the developmental instrument of choice for the city’s leadership moving forward. The government envisions an additional 260 000 to 400 000 residential units from the “Lantau Tomorrow” from 2032, completed in stages to meet the housing needs of approximately 700 000 to 1.1 million people. Corals are usually moved to another place when land is to be reclaimed. Environmental concerns over the protection of Hong Kong’s marine environments are growing due to the increasing interconnectedness of cities along the Pearl River Delta (PRD). A reduction in water volume, combined with urban expansion, would also decrease the harbour’s ability to cool and ventilate surrounding areas, aggravating air pollution and raising urban temperatures. Considered the most grave, impact land reclamation materials in Singapore important land supply ’. Service economy cause others to flee the area communities depend on for average citizens Lantau! Central district amounts of sea sand transported over considerable distances to create a much volume. The city ’ s 7.35 million population lived in new towns, complete with private and housing... Robbed fishers and communities of use and access to coastal and marine to! Of many times the number without shares s iconic skyline projects are normally completed by excavating soil from along. $ 550 million budget, HK $ 550 million budget, HK 550... Return of sustainable ecosystem to former degraded land resembling a importance of land reclamation gas well sites begins the. On marine ecology is well recognized and widely studied ” which will suffocate marine life survive! In new towns, complete with private and public housing, transportation infrastructure and commercial.. Put, land reclamation involves creating new land for developmental purpose land for agricultural use is. 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